The increased liquefaction caused significant ground movement, undermining many foundations and destroying infrastructure, damage which "may be the greatest ever recorded anywhere in a modern city". Canterbury Earthquake Sequence In the early hours of Saturday morning, September 4, 2010 a strong, shallow earthquake struck Christchurch marking the start of the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES). Impact of a major disaster on the mental health of a well-studied cohort. ", Of the 3,000 buildings inspected within the four avenues of the central city by 3 March 2011, 45% had been given red or yellow stickers to restrict access because of the safety problems. , China gave US$500,000 to the earthquake appeal, and Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao expressed his deep condolences to New Zealand. , New Zealand Cricket's offices were damaged by the earthquake. After a downturn in demand, a second wave of patients started arriving, many with much more severe injuries. Over the course of a week, LandSAR teams visited 67,000 premises. , The emergency department of Christchurch Hospital treated 231 patients within one hour of the earthquake. , The Carlton Hotel, a listed heritage building, was undergoing repairs after the September 2010 earthquake damage when the February 2011 earthquake damaged the building further.  Search of the building was technically difficult for USAR teams, requiring the deconstruction of 4-tonne stair sets, but the building was cleared with no victims discovered.. ... We will be doing everything we can to work with our New Zealand family, with Prime Minister Key and his emergency services personnel, his military officers, his medical people, his search and rescue teams. Linwood College and Shirley Boys' High School moved back to their original sites on 1 August (the first day of Term 3), and 13 September 2011 respectively. The earthquake struck the city of Christchurch in New Zealand on 22 February 2011.  The United Kingdom sent a 53 strong search and rescue team including nine Welsh firefighters who had assisted the rescue effort during the 2010 Haiti earthquake.  St Elmo Courts has been damaged in the September 2010 earthquake and the owner intended to repair the building, but further damage caused by the February 2011 event resulted in a decision to demolish, which was done the following month.  They were aided by DVI teams from Australia, UK, Thailand Taiwan and Israel..  They also responded to fires, serious structural damage reports, and landslides working with structural engineers, seismologists and geologists, as well as construction workers, crane and digger operators and demolition experts. His advice was that the 2011 earthquake was a "new event" and that EQC's reinsurance cover was already in place after the previous 2010 event. Different demographics may benefit from different types of mental counseling to help them recover from trauma. Rhodes, B., & Becker, L. (2013). Subsequent population loss saw the Christchurch main urban area fall behind the Wellington equivalent to decrease from second to third most populous area in New Zealand. New Zealand's GNS Science has stated that the earthquake was part of the aftershock sequence that has been occurring since the September magnitude-7.1 quake, however a seismologist from Geoscience Australia considers it a separate event given its location on a separate fault system.  Kamalesh Sharma, Commonwealth Secretary-General, sent a message of support to the Prime Minister and stated "our heart and condolences go immediately to the bereaved."  As of February 2015, there had been 1240 demolitions within the four avenues since the September 2010 earthquakes. The 21-storey PricewaterhouseCoopers building, the city's tallest office tower, was among the office buildings to be later demolished.  Since 15 August 2013 the cathedral congregation has worshipped at the Cardboard Cathedral.  The reinforced concrete building had been constructed in 1963–1964. 2 Chapter One: Introduction This chapter provides a brief overview to the earthquakes within Haiti and Christchurch. A state of local emergency was initially declared by the Mayor of Christchurch, which was superseded when the government declared a state of national emergency, which stayed in force until 30 April 2011. Researchers are unable to reliably compare an individual's mental health status to their health status previous to the trauma because they must rely on retrospective self-report. Canterbury earthquake sequence, specifically data from the GeoNet database of processed strong motion station recordings (geonet.org.nz) and the extensive site investigation data that has been collected by researchers and practitioners throughout Christchurch over the past several years (see Canterbury Geotechnical Database, . Smoking prevalence increases following Canterbury earthquakes. This included Shirley Boys' High School sharing with Papanui High School, Linwood College sharing with Cashmere High School and Avonside Girls High School sharing with Burnside High School and Marian College sharing with St Bedes College and Unlimited Paenga Tawhiti sharing with Halswell Residential College. The 6.3-magnitude earthquake may have been an aftershock of the 7.1-magnitude 4 September 2010 Canterbury earthquake.  Research following the Christchurch earthquakes has shown that increasing exposure to the damage and trauma of a natural disaster is correlated with an increase in depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). , Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper released a statement saying: "The thoughts and prayers of Canadians are with all those affected by the earthquake.  The 26-storey building was displaced by half a metre in the quake and had dropped by 1 metre on one side; parts of the emergency stairwells collapsed.  The Super Rugby Round 2 match between the Crusaders and Hurricanes scheduled for 26 February 2011 at Westpac Stadium in Wellington was abandoned. , Redcliffs Primary School, then located at 140 Main Road, right under the cliffs, was moved to Van Asch Deaf Education Centre, 4.5 km from the main site soon afterwards.  Liquefaction was significantly greater than that of the 2010 quake, causing the upwelling of more than 200,000 tonnes of silt which needed to be cleared. Christchurch Quake Map. , Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard offered Australia's assistance. , A KPMG survey in March 2013 suggested as much as $1.5 billion could be sucked from the rebuild in fraud. Dorahy, M.J., Rowlands, A., Renouf, C., Hanna, D., Britt, E., & Carter, J.D. , The Royal New Zealand Air Force provided an air bridge between Christchurch and Wellington using two Boeing 757 and three C-130 Hercules, and bringing in emergency crews and equipment and evacuating North Island residents and tourists out of Christchurch.  Over 1400 Army, Navy and Air Force personnel were involved, and Territorials (Army Reserve) were called up. 2012) that resulted in 185 fatalities. Site-sharing plans were made to enable affected schools to relocate, while 9 "learning hubs" were established throughout the city to provide resources and support for students needing to work from home. The Civic, the council's third home, was heavily damaged in February and was demolished. , 163 primary and secondary schools were affected by the earthquake, most of which were closed for three weeks; 90 had full structural clearance and were able to reopen, 24 had reports indicating further assessment and 11 were seriously damaged. The earthquake generated a significant series of its own aftershocks.  By mid-2019 early design and stabilisation work had begun. Executive Summary “Recovery after great disaster is always complex, takes a very long time, and never occurs fast enough for affected residents” 1. They also provided forensic analysis and evidence gathering at fatalities and Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) teams, working closely with pathologists, forensic dentists and scientists, and the coroner at the emergency mortuary established at Burnham Military Camp.  Self-report can introduce bias to results, leading to skewed data. The Christchurch earthquake sequence began with a magnitude (M) 7.1 earthquake (the Darfield Earthquake) which occurred on 4 September 2010. , 185 people from more than 20 countries died in the earthquake.  Those with the most exposure suffer the most from mental health deficits, compared with those that are relatively unaffected.  Some students relocated to other centres – by 5 March, a total of 4879 Christchurch students had enrolled in other schools across New Zealand. On Wednesday morning, 22 hours after the quake, a survivor was pulled from the rubble. , The Queen said she was "utterly shocked" and her "thoughts were with all those affected". ", While both the 2010 and 2011 earthquakes occurred on "blind" or unknown faults, New Zealand's Earthquake Commission had, in a 1991 report, predicted moderate earthquakes in Canterbury with the likelihood of associated liquefaction. , The Catholic Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament was also severely damaged, with the towers falling. ", David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, issued a statement and sent SMS text messages to Commonwealth prime ministers. , Earthquake Recovery Minister Gerry Brownlee echoed that fewer claims were expected through the EQC than for 2010. Because it has been found that different demographics are affected differently, this also needs to be taken into account when finding solutions to aid recovery.  Local jazz flautist Miho Wada formed the ensemble Miho's Jazz Orchestra to raise money for recovery efforts. People considered themselves adaptable and resilient after the Darfield earthquake, and undertook repairs with the aim of recovering to a ‘normal’ state as quickly as possible. The population loss caused by the earthquake reversed this, with the Wellington main urban area back in second position. EARTHQUAKE SEQUENCE A magnitude7.1 earthquake struck the Canterbury region of New Zealands South Island on September 4, 2010; the epicenter was located near the town of Darfield, approximately 35 kilometers west of Christchurch on the previously unknown Greendale fault. , The New Zealand Defence Force—staging their largest-ever operation on New Zealand soil— provided logistics, equipment, transport, airbridges, evacuations, supply and equipment shipments, survey of the Port and harbour, and support to the agencies, including meals; they assisted the Police with security, and provided humanitarian aid particularly to Lyttelton, which was isolated from the city in the first days. 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