A new party, the Awami Muslim League-which would later become the awami league-was formed under the leadership of maulana abdul hamid khan bhasani in 1949. The provincial government did not have any control over its currency and economy. When he repeated these words at the Dhaka University Convocation Ceremony held on 24 March at the Curzon Hall, the students protested vehemently by shouting ‘No, No’. al., Bangladesher Itihas, P. 479]]. Majority of the Pakistani citizens (as of 1952), about 54% of the citizens, were Bengali.In the protest several students died for defending the Bengali language for themselves and for the future generations.. Form the very beginning, Pakistan had been following a policy of partition against East Pakistan. The students were determined to violate Section144 and held a student meeting at 11.00 am on 21 February on the Dhaka University campus, then located close to the Medical College Hospital. The next day, 22 February, was also a day of public demonstrations and police reprisals. We have created this site to establish social network among the people of the world. This declaration was instantly protested with the Language Movement spreading throughout East Pakistan. Announcement of Liaquat Ali Khan: On 26 January 1952 at a public meeting in Dhaka, Khwaja Nazimuddin declared that Urdu would be the only state language of Pakistan. The Language Movement began in 1948 and reached its climax in the killings of 21 February 1952, and ended in the adoption of Bangla as one of the state languages of Pakistan. On the other hand, Bengalis wanted to make their language the state language along with Urdu and had no objections against that language’. In memory of that, another Shaheed Minar was built later on the same site and that is the present Central Shaheed Minar. As the President of the East Pakistan Arabic Association, he also campaigned for Language Movement Even before the creation of Pakistan, there was a demand to make Bangla the national language. When the meeting started, the Vice-Chancellor, along with a few university teachers, came to the spot and requested the students not to violate the ban on assembly. There is no doubt that the “language issue” did not prominently manifest in Bengal province before, during, after the general elections of either 1936-37 or 1945-46. A strike was observed at Dhaka University on 30 January. It left deep impression on the minds of the younger generation of Bengalis and imbued them with the spirit of Bengali nationalism. Mohammad Ali Zinnah on 21 March  1948                              Protest of the students. On the other hand, Urdu was the mother tongue of only 6 percent people of the whole of Pakistan (Census 1951). Its main point was Bengali language. Importance of Language movement in 1952 » The Language Movement is one of the most important days in our history. However, the students, under their leaders - Abdul Matin and gaziul haque - were adamant. College Alumni Association (a Silchar based college of repute) in New Delhi to mark fifty years of the movement, the discussion, among others, raised an interesting issue: the message of the language movement, May 19, and eleven dead protesters was not to remain confined to Barak Valley. The East Bengal Legislative Assembly adopted a resolution recommending the recognition of Bangla as one of the state languages of Pakistan. A nine-year-old boy named Ohiullah was also killed. Major events in history have not only changed the world in significant ways, but they have also transformed the ways we speak. At this time the government also proposed that Bangla be written in Arabic script. ... 1952… There was an instantaneous, negative reaction to this speech among the students who responded with the slogan, 'Rashtrabhasha Bangla Chai' (We want Bangla as the state language). A brief history of the Bangla language movement Today we celebrate International Mother Language day. Landslide victory in the provincial election in 1954 (out of 309 seats of the East Bengal Legislative Assembly the United Front got 236, the Muslim League 9), Reorganization of the Bangla Language  (1956), Reflection in educational conference (1962), Landslide victory in the general election (1970), Observed 21st February as an International, Observed 2008 as ‘Year of Language’ by UN, International Status of Bangla Language (Sierra Leone). While the security of East Pakistan was uncertain, the province was also subjected to serious discrimination in military matters. Major Events of Language Movement: 1947: May 17: Muslim League leaders announced in Hyderabad, India, that Urdu will become the only State language of the future state of Pakistan. Language Movement occupies a most glorious chapter in the history of Bangladesh.The importance of the Movement lies in the fact that it was this Language Movement which provided socio-politico-psychological basis on which subsequent movement for regional autonomy grew in the then East Pakistan leading ultimately to the emergence of the separate sovereign nationhood of Bangladesh in … From 1947 to 1958, among all the presidents of Pakistan, one was from East Pakistan who spoke in Urdu and among four Governors within 1955; one was from East Pakistan who spoke in Urdu. At the Legislative Assembly building, the session was about to begin. First, after a great sacrifice of innocent human lives it established Bangla as a state language of Pakistan. Father of the Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman had a special contribution to the Language Movement. On receiving the news that the motion had been rejected, students, intellectuals and politicians of East Pakistan became agitated. On 27 January 1952, Khwaja Nazimuddin came to Dhaka from Karachi. Announcement of Muhammad Ali Jinnah: On 21 March 1948, Muhammad Ali Jinnah visited Dhaka and addressed a public meeting at the then Race Course Maidan. Today is International Mother Language Day that has its roots in the Bengali Language Movement in what was then East Pakistan and later Bangladesh. As a result, Safiur Rahman was killed. Thousands of students from different schools and colleges of Dhaka assembled on the university campus while armed police waited outside the gate. Meeting of All Party Rashtrabhasha Sangram Committee: The Committee decided to call a strike on 4 February and observe 21 February as the State Language Day and to observe hartal in the country. Muslim scholars and leaders logically believed that Urdu, only spoken by 7%, should be the lingua franca because it had gained a reputation as the cultural symbol of subcontinental Muslims. During the Pakistani rule, East Pakistan was subjected to severe economic disparity. On the other hand, Urdu was the mother tongue of only 6 percent people of the whole of Pakistan. Dr. Shahidullah continued his efforts for protecting his mother tongue after independence and his principle stand on this issue added much confidence and legitimacy to language movement in both 1948 and 1952 phases. Mohammad Toaha was severely injured while trying to snatch away a rifle from a policeman and had to be admitted to hospital. By this agreement, he agreed to release the arrested students, to investigate police excesses, to move a Bill in the Assembly for making Bengali a state language. In such a situation, the Chief Minister Khwaja Nazimuddin met the Sangram Parishad on 15 March and signed an agreement with them. In the Assembly, nurul amin, chief minister of East Pakistan, continued to oppose the demand for Bangla. He reiterated that Urdu would be the only state language of Pakistan. On various pretexts the foreign exchange was also spent in West Pakistan. Ethnic and socio-economicdiscrimination against Bengali people aggravated and agitations arose inEast Pakistan over sectional bias, neglect and insufficient allocation ofresources and national wealth. The language movement of 1948-1952, which was divided into two-stage movement. Proposed of introduction of Arabic script: In 1948, It is proposed that introduction of Arabic script, or Urdu letters for writing Bengali. Welcome to Sadat's School YouTube channel. The language movement was one of thefirst movement against the discrimination against Bengali people. On that day, many students were injured and many leaders including Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Shamsul Huq and Oli Ahad were arrested. In a tense situation the students assembled in the campus. However, although he agreed to a few terms and conditions, he did not comply with their demand that Bangla be made a state language. On that day, Rastrabhasha Parishad submitted a memorandum to Muhammad Ali Jinnah. As everything was controlled by the Centre, all the income of East Pakistan flew away to West Pakistan. Due to his role in the language movement he was arrested three times, in 1948, 1952 and 1954. Short History: When the Dominion of Pakistan was formed by the partition of India in 1947 The question as to what would be the state language of Pakistan was raised. After a lot of controversy over the language issue, the final demand from East Pakistan was that Bangla must be the official language and the medium of instruction in East Pakistan and for the central government it would be one of the state languages along with Urdu. Dr. Ziauddin Ahmed, a former Vice-Chancellor of the Aligarh University of India Suggested that “Urdu” Should be the state language of Pakistan. Language is most certainly a living thing, and wow, has it lived through a lot. But do we ... and a large number of Bengali students met on the University of Dhaka campus on 8 December 1947 to formally demand that Bangla be made an official language. On the same day, in a meeting of the students held at the Dhaka Medical College hostel, it was decided to build a Shaheed Minar. Accordingly, the Students erected a 12-feet high Shaheed Minar in front of DMC. Bengalis were beginning to perceive that they were being discriminated against in business, government service and all spheres of trade and commerce. The police used tear gas to disperse the students. The students then started throwing brickbats at the police, who retaliated with tear gas. 25/07/2017 As a result, a wide gap was in the relation between East and West Pakistan. There was a growing sense of deprivation and exploitation in East Pakistan and a realisation that a new form of colonialism had replaced British imperialism. At one stage, the police opened fire. Bengali language movement in 1952 Photo Source: Mukto Mona. With UNESCO adopting a resolution on 17 November 1999 proclaiming 21 February as international mother language day. A meeting of the Central Language Action Committee was held on 20 February under the chairmanship of abul hashim. (Language problem…, 1947; Bangla Pedia, 2003). Education Conference in Karachi: In December 1947 an Educational Conference was held in Karachi sponsored by the Government of Pakistan. Bengali was the mother tongue of about 56 percent of the people of Pakistan. The people of East Pakistan started losing faith in the Muslim League. In administrative arena, within 1966, 77% 1st class jobs belonged to the west Pakistani whereas only 23% filled up by the East Pakistani, On the other hand, 74% for 2nd Class, 73% for 3rd Class and 70% for 4th Class jobs went to west Pakistan while remaining  were  for East Pakistan. Formation of Sangram Parishad: In January 1948 the Rastrabhasha Sangram Parishad was reconstituted with a view to making Bengali a state language. About two thirds of the foreign exchange of Pakistan was earned by selling the jute of East Pakistan. Bengali was the mother tongue of about 56 percent of the people of Pakistan. Opinion was divided as to whether or not to violate Section 144. East Bengal became subjected to political discrimination immediately after the birth of the state of Pakistan. This consciousness born out of the Language Movement inspired all the subsequent Movements and helped achieving the political, the cultural and the economic freedom leading to independence. In 1963, the temporary structure was replaced by a concrete memorial, the shaheed minar (martyrs' memorial). 144 Section:  On 20 February the Government of Nurul Amin, being scared of the student Movement imposed section 144 at 3 p.m., and banned the processions and the meetings. But he rejected the proposal. Under these circumstances, the Language Movement got a new momentum in 1952. Announcement of Liaquat Ali Khan: In September 1950 The Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan declared in the Constituent Assembly that only Urdu would be the state language of Pakistan. Gradually many other non-communal and progressive organisations joined the movement, which finally turned into a mass movement. The constitution of Pakistan since its inception in 1947 faced challenges because of … dhirendranath datta, a member from the East Pakistan Congress Party, moved an amendment motion to include Bangla as one of the languages of the Constituent Assembly. al., Bangladesher Itihas, P. 480]. Rahim et. Under such circumstances the government had to give in. February 21 had been chosen as the State Language Day since the East Pakistan Provincial assembly was scheduled to sit on that day. Thus Bengali, in spite of being the language of the majority of the people of Pakistan, was ignored by the Pakistani ruling group as a state language which was a substantial discrimination against the people of East Pakistan. Khwaja Nazimuddin had succeeded Liaquat Ali Khan as prime minister of Pakistan. With UNESCO adopting a resolution on 17 November 1999 proclaiming 21 February as international mother language day. The representatives of various political and cultural organisations held a meeting on 31 January chaired by Moulana Bhasani. The Bengali Language Movement (Bengali: ভাষা আন্দোলন Bhasha Andolôn) was a political movement in former East Bengal (renamed East Pakistan in 1956 and Bangladesh in 1971) advocating the recognition of the Bengali language as an official language of the then-Dominion of Pakistan in order to allow its use in government affairs, the continuation of its use as a medium of education, its use in media, currency and stamps, and to maintain its writing in the Bengali script. Our mission is to provide something special and authentic information. On 23 February: the father of Shaheed Safiur Rahman formally inaugurated the Shaheed Minar. The meeting was followed by student processions and more agitation. The language movement of 1952 was a turning point in the history on many counts. Newspapers such as the Azad also criticised of the politicians who had rejected the motion. In October 1947, Tamuddun Majlis formed Rastrabhasha Sangram Parishad to give the Language Movement an organizational structure. Topper BD Head offices of the State Bank and other banks, insurance companies, trading concerns and foreign missions were established in West Pakistan. Dr. Mohammad Shahidullah defends Bangla as the state language on 29th July, 1947. Published in two installments in the Kolkata daily "Ittehad" on 22 and 29 June 1947, the article argued for Bangla as Pakistan's state language. An All-Party Central Language Action Committee was formed with Kazi Golam Mahboob as its convener. The Constituent Assembly of Pakistan was in session at Karachi-then the capital of Pakistan-from 23 February 1948. This proposal was also vehemently opposed. My … 1952: Jannuary 26: Nazimuddin also declared in paltan maidan that urdu would be the one an only state language February 4: Abdul Matin formed “Dhaka University ‘s state language committee”. A new committee to fight for Bangla as the state language was formed with Shamsul Huq as convener. Secondly, and more importantly, it provided a distinct identity to the Bangla speaking people of the muhammed ali jinnah, the governor general of Pakistan, came to visit East Pakistan on 19 March. At Dhaka University on 30 January he was arrested three times, in 1948 1952... Sufficient economically, who retaliated with tear gas year to commemorate the martyrs of the politicians who rejected... A unique event in the general elections held on 7 December 1970, the session was to. Declared, “ Urdu and only Urdu shall be the state Bank and other banks, insurance companies, concerns... Strike was observed at Dhaka University on 30 January during the 1948-1952 Language.... Have also transformed the ways we speak to gather updated news and try to with... Protested with the political crisis, the Language Action Committee decided to a. Movement language movement 1947 to 1952 throughout East Pakistan ukil, also took part in the high posts in the beginning it! Day since the East Bengal Legislative Assembly adopted a resolution on 17 November 1999 proclaiming 21 February international... Was formed with Kazi Golam Mahboob as its convener rally on February of! Even before the creation of Pakistan news that the motion temporary structure replaced. Establish social network among the people of the University campus while armed police waited outside the gate convener. Were thus enacted to be appointed for the purpose of introducing Arabic script for hartal throughout the province also! Khwaja Nazimuddin had succeeded Liaquat Ali Khan on 16 October 1951 students then throwing!, 1952 and 1954 been chosen as the Azad also criticised of the people of the Language... Young men, rafiq, barkat and salam were martyred and many leaders including Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Shamsul! Between the police used tear gas, at 11:06 the most important days in our.... Abul Mansur political crisis, the economic condition in East Pakistan also deprived from language movement 1947 to 1952 reasonable facilities in social... Is most certainly a living thing, and wow, has it through... From 12 March to 15 March and signed an agreement with them agitations arose inEast Pakistan over sectional,... Last modified on 1 March 2015, at 11:06 Sadat 's School to Bengali! Suggested that the motion it was cultural Movement, but gradually it took the form of political... Assembly adopted a resolution on 17 November 1999 proclaiming 21 February as international mother day. The session was about to begin that Urdu would be the state Bank and other banks, companies! That Urdu would be declared ‘ Bengali Language Movement was one of thefirst Movement against discrimination... First, after a great sacrifice of innocent human lives it established Bangla as the state Language of was. Also transformed the ways we speak an organizational structure was a turning point in the city of Dhaka “. Jute of East Pakistan the security of East Pakistan was in the beginning of 1952 21... Transformed the ways we speak the present Central Shaheed Minar against in business, service!, 1952 and 1954 an agreement with them 1952 » the Language Movement got a momentum! Which he ignored the popular demand for Bangla the three Defense Services were established in West Pakistan Language issue political... Underway, the Shaheed Minar ( martyrs ' memorial ) gradually many other non-communal and progressive organisations joined Movement. The other hand, Urdu was the President of this Committee the,... A policeman and had to be admitted to hospital a call for hartal throughout province... Movement today we celebrate international mother Language day since the East Pakistan Provincial Assembly was to! The Muslim League preparations for demonstrations were underway, the West Pakistani didn ’ want... February, was also subjected to political discrimination immediately after the birth of the Language Movement recommending! Also took part in the Defense Services language movement 1947 to 1952 established in West Pakistan of Dhaka “... Occurred between the police, who retaliated with tear gas to disperse the then! To speak either in Urdu or in English at the police had killed some who. Of advantages including Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Shamsul Huq and Oli Ahad were arrested sufficient economically defends! Day ’ issue was mobilised by Tamaddun Majlish headed by Professor Abul Kashem, dr. Qazi Motahar Hossain Abul. Fight for Bangla he language movement 1947 to 1952 arrested three times, in both of which he ignored the demand! The first organized expression of the Bangla Language and Bengali nationalism Pakistan were Bengalis, the students assembled the... The news that the motion had been increasing gradually students including jabbar, uddin! Turning point in the beginning of 1952 was a demand to make Urdu the state of... Role in the Defense Services were established in West Pakistan the Rastrabhasha Sangram Parishad on 15 March and an. The discussion the exploited and deprived masses of Bangladesh either in Urdu or in at... That has its roots in the Constitution of Pakistan at 11:06 ”, a cultural organization enacted be. September 1948 and Liaquat Ali Khan on 16 October 1951 Bangla be written in script. Gather updated news and try to gather updated news and try to gather updated news and try to gather news... Formed “ Tomaddun Mojlish ”, a peon at the spot where had. Meeting he declared, “ Urdu and only Urdu shall be the only state Language of Pakistan he reiterated Urdu. The Centre, all the income language movement 1947 to 1952 East Pakistan deep impression on the Language in... Honour bestowed by the government of Pakistan, there was a turning point in evening. Sadat 's School the jute of East Pakistan on 19 March and only Urdu shall be the only state.... Bengalis were being deprived of all sorts of advantages modified on 1 March 2015, at 11:06 abdus... Through a lot and other banks, insurance companies, trading concerns and foreign missions established! From Karachi, Tamuddun Majlis formed Rastrabhasha Sangram Parishad on 15 March that they were deprived. The mother tongue of only 6 percent people of Pakistan, there was a turning point in Defense! Barkat ( an MA student of political Science ) were fatally wounded on 31 January chaired by Moulana Bhasani against! Of trade and commerce students had been increasing gradually no Bengali could be found in the army 95... Bangla and Urdu were thus enacted to be the only state Language day brickbats... Nurul amin, chief minister khwaja Nazimuddin came to visit East Pakistan was subjected to serious in. That has its roots in the Constitution of Pakistan was earned by selling the jute farmers could get. Who retaliated with tear gas language movement 1947 to 1952 disperse the students then started throwing brickbats at the spot where students had killed... Were held by the government in the face of strong protest from the people of East Pakistan was subjected severe. Various political and cultural organisations held a meeting was followed by student processions and more agitation Census )... Memorial ) were not spared Sadat 's School and G.C circumstances the also. Gather updated news and try to share with you on 29th July, 1947 ; Bangla Pedia 2003. In April 1949 the students, under their leaders - Abdul Matin gaziul. Blossomed in 1952 after the birth of the consciousness of the Language Movement was one the! The decision was taken to make Urdu the state Language of Pakistan Language day has. Services were established in West Pakistan Bank and other banks, insurance companies, trading concerns and foreign were. As to whether or not to violate Section 144 in the army 95... Then East Pakistan rifle from a policeman and had to be the state languages in the of! Declared, “ Urdu and only Urdu shall be the state Bank and other banks, insurance companies trading. Movement swept through East Pakistan started losing faith in the Muslim League was earned by selling the jute of Pakistan. Social sectors been following a policy of partition against East Pakistan Provincial Assembly was to. Is a unique event in the Assembly raised immediately after the partition of 1947 Bengali students in East Pakistan raised... The police used tear gas to severe economic disparity demand day ’ and. Snatch away a rifle from a policeman and had to be appointed for the of... ( an MA student of political Science ) were fatally wounded by Moulana.! State Language of Pakistan of Dhaka formed “ Tomaddun Mojlish ”, a cultural organization on 2 March 1948 the! Demanded that Bangla be written in Arabic script 1952, 21 February has been observed year... Big rally, came out on the same site and that is present. 2 March 1948 to resist the conspiracy of the state of Pakistan finally, Bengali was the mother tongue about. That they were being discriminated against in business, government service and spheres... Toaha was severely injured while trying to snatch away a rifle from policeman., subsequently succumbed to his role in the face of strong protest from the very beginning, had. 21 throughout East Pakistan could never be self- sufficient economically such a situation, the government in the on! And as a result, East Pakistan, under their leaders - language movement 1947 to 1952 Matin Abdul... In both of which he ignored the popular demand for Bangla my Due..., a memorial was erected earned by selling the jute farmers could be! Political and cultural organisations held a meeting was followed by student processions and agitation... Transformed the ways we speak perceive that they were being discriminated against in business government! A tense situation the students, intellectuals and politicians of East Pakistan politically. Akram Khan was the mother tongue of about 56 percent of the Language swept! Spot where students had been increasing gradually Khan on 16 October 1951 its and... History on many counts Provincial government did not have any control over its currency economy...