Keywords: ESL classroom, code-switching, bilingualism 1 Introduction One of the unique features of Malaysian English as a Second Language (ESL) classrooms is that the teachers and students are bilinguals where code-switching is second to nature. ‘Global Entrepreneurship and Transnationalism’. Code-switching is the alternating use of two or more languages in teaching and learning for easy acquisition of knowledge by learners. Teaching English to When students are able to code- switch, they are not only maintaining their native language and or dialect but they are also learning a new code, which in this case is SAE. Tsaona Mokgwathi, Vic Webb. Secondly, the functionality of code switching in teachers’ classroom discourse will be introduced with its aspects as: topic switch, affective functions, and repetitive functions. code switching, language of instruction, classroom practice 1. In the current global economic climate, the ability to speak English has become an important business tool. Many language teachers have devoted much energy in “enforcing” rules to forbid the use of other language codes in their classrooms and in extreme cases, penalties may even be threatened. Aguirre (1988), Hudelson (1983) and Olmedo-Williams (1983) found Code Switching to be an effective teaching and communicative technique which could be used among bilingual learners. A Parents’ and Teachers’ Guide to Bilingualism, Clevedon: MPG Books. On a psychological level, learners often code-switch when they feel tired or angry. are aware of the benefits of code-switching and to raise awareness of the relationship between code choice and wider social factors. English Classrooms. Mattsson, A & Burenhult-Mattsson, N. (1999). New Horizons in Education, December, pp.75-87. The questionnaire was adapted from Schweers’ (1999), Tang’s (2002) and Burden’s (2001) studies. Baker (2007) describes this well: “Words or phrases in two languages may not correspond exactly, and the bilingual may switch to one language to express a concept that has no equivalent in the culture of the other language” (Baker, 2007:108). Findings 4.1 The Presence of Code Switching in English Medium Classrooms Table 1 below gives the responses of the teachers on the above item. That is to say, bilinguals make clear that they code-switch when they cannot find the correct expression or term. 2. This is crucial for the development of language polices: There is a need to consider and to develop a policy based on the usefulness of CS. Zabrodskaja (2007) suggests that code-switching is inevitable in the classroom where the teacher and students share the same language. In his view code-switchers may be preserving the meaning of their original statement by overcoming the lack of a suitable word in the second language (Baker, 2007: 56-57). As Iqbal (2011) shed light on code-switching as a natural, creative and innovative way of communication among bilingual teachers in Pakistan where it is used as a technique for facilitating students in classrooms. Code-switching has positive effects on learners and teachers (Ahmad, 2009; Promnath, 2016). 1996. Use code switching to help students feel encouraged and supported. ‘Factors of Code Switching among Bilingual English Students In the University Classroom: A Survey’. English has essentially become the “universal second language” of the international labour market, Creative and innovative management in General Electric cooperation, Emergence Of Artificial Intelligence In Writing Industry. secondary school. In an academic context, studies by Arrifin and Husin (2011) have observed that learners with a greater linguistic ability often see code-switching as and obstacle to becoming fluent in a second language. to administer lots of simple praise in the target language. As such, two or more languages may be spoken alternately during a conversation. Key terms in Latino/a cultural and literary studies, Oxford: Blackwell. Code switching is one of the most frequent communication strategies used by foreign language students (Burenhult 5). Click here to ask a question about this article. While classroom code‐switching studies have been diverse, the often‐quoted early studies chiefly have been conducted in North American settings in two main kinds of contexts: (1) second language contexts (e.g. As such, code-switching is often seen as a social as well as a linguistic medium. Chan et al (2009) usefully describe code-switching as “the intra-sentential switching of two different languages in a spoken utterance” (Chan et al, 2009: 281). The Sociolinguistics. This scale provides finer scale value for statistical analysis purpose. . English has essentially become the “universal second language” of the international labour market, and the socio-economic significance of this cannot be overstated (Light, 2007: 9). Despite the pro and cons of the code-switching, this research aims to show the perspective of both teacher and students towards code-switching and functions it serve in EFL classroom setting. Some researchers have claimed that this type of code-switching requires higher language competence as the speaker needs to understand the grammatical rules that permit a particular intra-utterance code-switch.Though we cannot substantiate this claim due to the limited data in this preliminary study, our results indicate that these children have grasped some basic rules of code-switching … Exploring Code-Switching in the Classroom. 4. Accordingly, the practice has been considered as a sign of linguistic deficiency. All the above mentioned researches are though conducted in the Pakistani context but the nature of the present On a psychological level, learners often code-switch when they feel tired or angry. of Code-switching in Classroom: Studies in the 1990s 2.5.1 Meritt et al. Code-switching involves the use of multiple languages, where speakers of additional languages incorporate alternate linguistic elements into their source language. In addition, code-switching can have a positive impact in an academic context. This paper will attempt to demonstrate the causes and effects of code-switching in bilingual classes. 47: 59-72. Code -switching in L2 6 language classroom differs extensively. Code- switching between different linguistic forms and SAE in classroom settings is very useful. The academic use of code-switching involves a more complex and random effect than can be fully explained by a students ability to speak in a certain language. The comforting familiarity of the native language can give students more confidence. Others have a different view however, in particular that code-switching may be perceived as ‘linguistic resourcefulness’. An important teaching skill is the ability to transfer knowledge to students in a clear and efficient manner, and so code-switching can be a useful tool in the classroom for both teachers and students (Bista, 2010: 1). Although sometimes viewed as linguistic incompetence this is not always the case. Code-switching may also be used to emphasize a point, or to add more force to a phrase. The educational effects of code-switching in the classroom-benefits and setbacks: A case of selected senior secondary schools in Botswana . Allatson, P., 2007. From their perspective, code-switching assists in understanding the more complex linguistic elements of the second language. 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